Yup, that’s it.
Verified Calls was disabled. I enabled it. Now Verified Calls says “Status: active with +1xxxxxx2214” (my real phone number)
I think I misspoke in my earlier post today and looked at a different field. The Device Phone Number under Data and Messaging has my real number. I will check there if I get the Google message again. The underlying number is in the Messages App > Settings > Advanced Settings > Phone Number. Sorry about that!